In 1929, he had co-founded an anti-fascist organisation called 'Giustizia e Libertà'. It was this political activism, for which he was arrested in 1935, that led to his exile to Aliano (the fictional town he called Gagliano in his book), in Lucania, southern Italy. He lived in this remote, hilltop village for a year and during that time he painted, worked as a doctor and observed the daily hardship of the villagers that he would later write about in his most famous book, 'Christ Stopped at Eboli'.
Carlo Levi's house in Aliano
Once released, he lived in Paris until 1941 when he returned to Italy where he was, once again, arrested. Following the fall of Mussolini, he was again released and it was then that he wrote 'Christ Stopped at Eboli', a vivid, first hand account of the life of poverty and deprivation endured by the Lucanians.
Lucania, now called Basilicata, was at that time one of the poorest and most backward areas in Italy. The publishing of 'Christ Stopped at Eboli' in 1947 brought the problems suffered in the under developed southern regions of the country to public attention.
Carlo Levi in 1960
In 1963 Carlo Levi was elected to the Italian Senate, serving there until his death on January 4, 1975. Though Levi's first novel made him famous and established him as one of the most important writers of the social realism movement, he wrote several other important books:
In Of Fear and Freedom (1946)
The Watch (1950)
Words Are Stones (1955)
Il futoru ha un cuore antico (1956)
The Linden Trees (1962)
Statue of Carlo Levi in Aliano
He died of pneumonia in Rome on January 4, 1975. He is buried in the town that made him famous, Aliano in Basilicata.